Sentencing used to be the exclusive domain of the judge, the lawyers and the defendant, carried out in public. However, with the introduction of the victim impact statement (VIS), the victim has become involved in the sentencing process.
Parole used to be the exclusive domain of the executive, the minister and officials. Gradually, the parole board has become largely independent and judicialized and judges have extended the scope of judicial review to cover parole decisions.
Over time, victims have successfully pressed for the right to participate in the parole process. Increasingly, legal services are required, though not so easily obtained from the public purse.